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Lesson 1

Project Life Cycle Requirements

What are the individual phases which make up the project life cycle in software development?
In software development, projects typically progress through a sequence of phases collectively known as the project life cycle. Understanding these phases is fundamental to managing software development effectively. The phases, which may slightly vary depending on the specific methodology adopted, typically include:
  1. Initiation (or Conceptualization): This phase marks the beginning of the project. It involves identifying the need for a new software product or a modification to an existing one. The goals and objectives of the project are defined, and a preliminary cost-benefit analysis is conducted to determine its feasibility. High-level risks are assessed, and stakeholders are identified.
  2. Planning: Once the project's goals and feasibility are established, the next step is planning. This phase involves defining the scope of the project, creating a detailed work plan, identifying resources, setting timelines, and developing a budget. Additionally, risk management plans, quality plans, and communication plans are established. Key deliverables and milestones are defined at this stage.
  3. Design: In the design phase, the software solution's architectural framework is established. This includes creating detailed software and systems designs to implement the project's requirements. The design phase is crucial for the software's functionality, performance, security, and robustness. The output of this phase usually includes design documents and technical specifications.
  4. Implementation (or Development): During the implementation phase, the software is built according to the design specifications. Coding is the primary activity in this phase, transforming design into a workable application. Regular reviews and unit testing are performed to ensure the software meets the required standards and requirements.
  5. Testing: In the testing phase, the software is rigorously tested to identify and rectify any defects or issues. Different types of testing like functional testing, system testing, integration testing, usability testing, and performance testing are carried out to ensure the software is functioning as intended.
  6. Deployment: Once the software is thoroughly tested and approved, it's deployed in the production environment. This may occur in stages, depending on the deployment model. It could be a phased rollout where the software is deployed to a part of the user base initially, or it could be a full rollout where the software is made available to all users at once.
  7. Maintenance (or Operations): After the software is deployed, it enters the maintenance phase, which continues for as long as the software is in use. This involves providing ongoing support, resolving issues, implementing updates and enhancements, and monitoring performance. It's also where the software's lifecycle might end if the software becomes obsolete, is phased out, or is replaced with a new product.

Each of these phases constitutes an essential part of the project life cycle in software development. They ensure that the project is systematically managed from the initial idea through to the operational stage, enhancing the likelihood of its success while minimizing potential risks.

What is the project life cycle in Software Development?

This module describes the individual phases making up the project life cycle for developing software.
The first course in the Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Fundamentals Series is primarily concerned with defining the users' expectations for the system.
Question: What are the methods and tools used in the first phase of the project life cycle?
Answer: Project initiation.
A basic understanding of how the entire software development process fits together is valueable.

Software Development Process

What are the origins for the different software development methodologies?
Answer: Each one has grown out of a specific type of problem or industry and exhibits the unique characteristics of that problem or industry. Some methodologies focus on
  1. standard business systems,
  2. others on real-time or embedded systems, and
  3. others on internal or system software.
What this means is that the software industry really has no single standardized development process.

Information Technology Project Management

Methods and Tools

Given the fact that there are so many different software development methodologies, the focus in this course will be on processes common to most methodologies. Important to note is the fact that the methods and tools are consistent across most of the current development processes. Learning these fundamental methods and tools will provide you with the skills to incorporate and customize a methodology that best meets the needs of your development environment.

Module Learning Objectives

In this module, you will learn about:
  1. The components of a software development methodology
  2. The phases making up the project life cycle for developing software
  3. The scope of each project life-cycle phase
  4. How the Unified Modeling Language (UML) fits into the software development process

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